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Thursday, July 21, 2016

Using special characters in ORACLE DB passwords


Using special characters in ORACLE DB passwords

 
Using special characters in ORACLE DB passwords. Most times we restrict our selves from using complicated special characters as we think that we can't use them in passwords, but in oracle DB world we are allowed to use most special characters as passwords. See this simple example to see how to use special char's in passwords and login.




To log into DB using cmdline we need to use single quote ''. else oracle some times doesn't recognize the password. See below example :

I created a user with password using special characters.

SQL> alter user C##atest identified by "atest113..";

User C##ATEST altered.

[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ sqlplus C##atest/atest113..

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Wed Jul 20 16:39:56 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

ERROR:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied


Solution to this is to use single quote:

[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ sqlplus C##atest/"atest113$$"

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Wed Jul 20 16:41:44 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

ERROR:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied


Enter user-name: ^C

press ctrl+c to escape from this line


[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ sqlplus C##atest/'atest113$$&&'

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Wed Jul 20 16:43:20 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Last Successful login time: Wed Jul 20 2016 16:42:54 -05:00

Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show user
USER is "C##ATEST"

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ sqlplus C##atest/atest113$$&&

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

configure complex password (password verify function) in oracle database


 configure password verify function in oracle database


We can enable the oracle provided "password verify function" to enforce strong password restrictions for our DB users. This function with other profile parameters can create a strong security for the database.To enable the oracle password verification function you need to execute the utlpwdmg.sql file from ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin as sysdba.


[oracle@Linux03 home]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/rdbms/admin/
[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ ls utlpwdmg.sql

[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/rdbms/admin/utlpwdmg.sql

SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/rdbms/admin/utlpwdmg.sql

Function created.

Grant succeeded.

Function created.

Grant succeeded.

Function created.

Grant succeeded.

Profile altered.

Note : You can query current default profile settings using as below

select * from DBA_PROFILES where profile='DEFAULT';

Starting from 12c this file (utlpwdmg.sql) creates four functions under user SYS. Here we have an option to select one from four functions.

ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION
ORA12C_VERIFY_FUNCTION
VERIFY_FUNCTION
VERIFY_FUNCTION_11G

This function makes the minimum complexity checks like the minimum length of the password, password not same as the
username, etc. The user may enhance this function according to your need.

You can change the password verify function by using below sql :

ALTER PROFILE "DEFAULT" LIMIT PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION ORA12C_VERIFY_FUNCTION

IT SETS UP FOLOWING PARAMETERS IN DEFAULT PROFILE:

ALTER PROFILE DEFAULT LIMIT
PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 180
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 7
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME UNLIMITED
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX  UNLIMITED
FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 10
PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME 1

-- This script alters the default parameters for Password Management. This means that all the users on the system have Password Management enabled and set to the following values unless another profile is created with parameter values set to different value or UNLIMITED  is created and assigned to the user.

LETS TEST THE PASSWORD FUNCTION BY CREATING A NEW USER.

SQL> create user C##atest identified by atest11;

Error starting at line : 2 in command -
create user C##atest identified by atest11
Error report -
SQL Error: ORA-28003: password verification for the specified password failed
ORA-20001: Password length less than 8
28003. 00000 -  "password verification for the specified password failed"
*Cause:    The new password did not meet the necessary complexity
           specifications and the password_verify_function failed
*Action:   Enter a different password. Contact the DBA to know the rules for
           choosing the new password

          
While using length of 8 chars I was able to create user.

SQL> create user C##atest identified by atest113;

User C##ATEST created.


Follow this link on how to disable Password verify function  : 

http://arvindasdba.blogspot.com/2013/06/disable-password-verify-function-in.html

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

TNS-00583: Valid node checking: unable to parse configuration parameters

 TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error  TNS-00583: Valid node checking: unable to parse configuration parameters

I  Received following errors when trying to startup my listener. I verified the listener.ora and sqlnet.ora files and everything seemed to look normal.
 
[oracle@Linux03 encryption_keystore]$ lsnrctl start

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 12-JUL-2016 10:05:32

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Starting /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...

TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
System parameter file is /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/Linux03/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1)))
Error listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=Linux03)(PORT=1521)))
TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
 TNS-00583: Valid node checking: unable to parse configuration parameters



Listener failed to start. See the error message(s) above...

[oracle@Linux03 encryption_keystore]$ lsnrctl start

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 12-JUL-2016 10:07:41

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Starting /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...

TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
System parameter file is /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/Linux03/listener/alert/log.xml
Error listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=Linux03)(PORT=1521)))
TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
 TNS-00583: Valid node checking: unable to parse configuration parameters



Listener failed to start. See the error message(s) above...


I had below line in my sqlnet.ora file.

[oracle@Linux03 admin]$ cat sqlnet.ora_bak
# sqlnet.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, EZCONNECT)

ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION =
  (SOURCE =(METHOD = FILE)(METHOD_DATA =
    (DIRECTORY = /u01/app/oracle/admin/$ORACLE_SID/encryption_keystore/)  
  

Solution (In my case):

1. Tried to remove the ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION info and it worked for me. I knew there was somthing wrong with the syntax.
2. Copied the content from ENCRYPTION_WALLET* into notepad ++ . It helped me realize that I was missing two closing parenthesis )) at end.
3. Added them at end. Started the listener and worked.


[oracle@Linux03 encryption_keystore]$ lsnrctl start

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production on 12-JUL-2016 10:31:41

Copyright (c) 1991, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Starting /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...

TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
System parameter file is /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/Linux03/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=Linux03)(PORT=1521)))
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=Linux03)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.2.0 - Production
Start Date                12-JUL-2016 10:31:41
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/Linux03/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=Linux03)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
The listener supports no services
The command completed successfully


Also try these if above trick doesn't help.

1.  Oracle listener.ora or sqlnet.ora file contains any special characters.
2.  Oracle Listener.ora or sqlnet.ora file are in wrong format or syntax.
3.  Oracle listener.ora or sqlnet.ora file have some left justified parenthesis which are not accepted by oracle parser.

Thursday, July 7, 2016

Enable Database Auditing in oracle


ENABLE AUDITING IN ORACLE DATABASE


SERVER SETUP FOR DB AUDITING


Auditing is a default feature available in Oracle server. The initialization parameters that influence its behaviour can be displayed using the SHOW PARAMETER SQL*Plus command.

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
audit_file_dest                      string      C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.2.0\ADMIN
                                                 \DB10G\ADUMP
audit_sys_operations                 boolean     FALSE
audit_trail                          string      NONE

SQL>

Auditing is disabled by default, but can enabled by setting the AUDIT_TRAIL static parameter, which has the following allowed values.

AUDIT_TRAIL = { NONE | os | db | db,extended | xml | xml,extended }

The following list provides a description of each setting (choose one based on your requirement):


NONE or false - Auditing is disabled.
db or true - Auditing is enabled, with all audit records stored in the database audit trial (SYS.AUD$).
db,extended - As db, but the SQL_BIND and SQL_TEXT columns are also populated.
xml - Auditing is enabled, with all audit records stored as XML format OS files.
xml,extended - As xml, but the SQL_BIND and SQL_TEXT columns are also populated.
OS - Auditing is enabled, with all audit records directed to the operating system's audit trail.


To enable auditing and direct audit records to the database audit trail, we would do the following.


SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET audit_trail=db SCOPE=SPFILE;
System altered.

SQL> SHUTDOWN
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> STARTUP
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  289406976 bytes
Fixed Size                  1248600 bytes
Variable Size              71303848 bytes
Database Buffers          213909504 bytes
Redo Buffers                2945024 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL>

Note : Enabling and Disabling the auditing in database will only take affect after a db restart.